Procedures of Manufacturing Garments

Garments are final products of textile processing, which uses fiber as raw materials. After spinning, weaving, wet processing, materials are ready for manufacturing garments. In general, garments are made from dyed or printed fabrics. Based on pattern, desired design and style, the procedures are called as garments manufacturing.

The followings are the procedures of manufacturing garments:
2.Pattern Design
3.Sample Making
4.Production Pattern
6.Marker Making
7.Fabric Spreading
8.Fabric Cutting
12.Final Inspection
14.Dispatch to Buyer or Retailer

Nowadays, the procedures of manufacturing garments are controlled by modern technology. Various types of software are widely used and a huge investigation is also needed.

Procedures of Manufacturing Fully Linked Jacket

In apparel industry, there are various types of apparels manufactured. Garments have different sizes or styles. For sizes or styles, garments are named in different ways. Jacket is one of apparels which are popular for young generation. Jacket is also used as a fashionable fabric.

In garment industry, CAD and other digitalization systems are used for cutting patter. After cutting section, different parts are sent to the sewing section for assembling jacket. After sewing and final inspection by the quality control it is ready for sale in the market.

The followings are the procedures of manufacturing fully linked jacket:
1.Contrast joint with the pocket by pressing.
2.Pocket rolling
3.Number matching with body & Pocket
4.Pocket joint
5.Zig Zag top sin over Pocket
6.Numbering & gathering back & front pants
7.Solder joint
8.Top sin on the solder joint line
9.Collar make
10.Chain stitching on collar marking line
11.Collar Joint
12.Collar over locked in joining line
13.Numbering sleeve and body part
14.Sleeve joins with body
15.Zigzag top sin on Arm hole
16.Zipper piping
17.Side sewing /body sewing by over lock
18.Zig Zag topsin (side sewing line)
19.Bottom hem tuck sewing
20.Tuck bottom hem with body parts
21.Arm hole tuck↓Button hem top sin Zig zag
22.Cuff making
23.Cuff joint
24.Cuff top sin Zig Zag
25.Zipper joint with body part
26.Collar tape part joint with zipper side
27.Collar taping part join with body part
28.Zipper top sin
29.Collar top sin
30.Label joint with body part
31.Quality Table (Arm hole point, sleeve hem, Bottom hem, Top sin, side seam, Thread cutting. Spot etc are inspected)

Common Faults in Spreading Fabrics

Spreading fabrics is the process that lays fabrics one over one on spreading table. Various faults can be caused on the fabrics during spreading, which should be identified.

Common faults in spreading fabrics: The following are the common faults during spreading fabrics.
1. Slub: Slub is a kind of faults caused by wrong spinning process. However, some times, slub is used as fashion. For that, slub is found after a defined interval.
2. Fly yarn: Fly yarn which is found with the main yarn, is a knitting or woven fault. For that, fabric manufacturing should be kept clean.
3. End out: A weaving fault is found in weft yarn.
4. Double yarn or mixed yarn: A weaving fault is found in the warp yarn direction.
5. Miss prick: A weaving fault is caused by missing of the weft yarn in the fabric.
6. Shading: A dyeing fault
7. Spots: A dyeing fault found in the dyed fabric.
8. Stains: Stains caused by soil mark.
9. Crease mark: A finishing fault.
10. Holes: A knitting fault.

Computerized Knife Cutter Introduction

Computerized knife cutter is a kind of cutting instruments which are used for cutting fabric in garment industry

Principles of computerized knife cutter: The followings are the principles of computerized knife cutter.
Firstly, CAD makes a marker.
Secondly, auto spreader spreads fabric.
Then, a special cutting table is used for knife cutter.
Lastly, CAD cooperates with CAM to run the computerized knife cutter machine.

Procedures of computerized knife cutter:
1. Knife cutter uses a perforated table.
2. An air suction unit is available under the perforated table.
3. A beam is placed widthwise on the table to runs lengthwise.
4. Beam contents a knife to move the table widthwise.
5. When switch is on the cutter, then cutting start at the starting point and cutting continued until finish the marker in CAD

Advantages: Computerized knife cutter is quite suitable for high quality cutting.

1. Computerized knife cutter needs high investment cost.
2. This cutting system needs skilled operator.

Three Methods Used for Cutting Fabrics

In garments industry, assembling different parts of fabric through sewing makes a garment. Sew different apparel accessories. Cutting fabrics is performed after fabrics having been spread. Incorrect cutting can make various garment faults.

Methods of cutting fabrics: Three methods are used for cutting fabrics.

1. Completely manual method: Completely manual method is unavailable in garments industry. This method is used for tailoring purpose to cut fabrics. It is a completely manual method of cutting fabric, which needs more for cutting.
2. Manually operated powered knife method: Use a knife to cut fabrics. Knife is placed at the head of the cutting machine, which is the most used methods in apparel industry for cutting fabrics.
3. Computerized methods: Computerized method becomes popular for cutting fabrics. All programs are loaded to the computer. Then, the computer performs activities which are loaded.

The followings are the process of cutting fabrics:
1.Fabric Spreading
2.Marker placing at the top
3.Fabric cutting
5.Numbering and checking
6.Parts replacing
8.Input to sewing section

Cutting fabrics has great influence on sewing section. Cutting fabrics can be classified based on the size of the fabrics. After sorting, numbering and checking are performed in case of any types of mistakes. Dyed fabrics vary from one a lot to another although they are dyed by the same dyes. Shade is also varying from layer to layer. Nevertheless, additional care should be taken during numbering. Numbering is used for avoiding the shade variation of the fabric. Then, parts are separated and made a bundle for sending to swing section.

Usages of Jute Fiber

As a kind of natural cellulosic fiber, jute fiber is different from other textile fiber while it is quit similar to flax plant. Jute fiber whose length is 0.2 to 30 inch, comes from jute plant. Jute fiber is hard. For that, it needs to be softened before being used for making yarn. The process of spinning jute fiber is also different from others.

Jute fiber which is spun is widely used. Jute is a kind of eco-friendly materials which is welcomed by people. Moreover, jute fiber is cheaper than other textile fibers.

Usages of jute fiber: Jute fiber is used as raw materials for various types of decorative jute goods. Jute fiber which has high quality is made into curtains and furnishing fabrics. Jute can be mixed with wool for fine yarn and fabric production.

The followings are the usages of jute fiber:
1. Sacks
2. Bags
3. Bailing and bundle cloths
4. Wrapping
5. Bedding foundation
6. Boot and shoe linings
7. Tailors back packing
8. Camp beds
9. Tarpaulins
10. Cables
11. Filter cloths
12. Fuse yarns
13. Hand bags and all types of stiff bags
14. Horse covers
15. Aprons of all heavy types
16. Iron, steel, tube and rod wrappings
17. Canal linings
18. Mail bags
19. Motor linings
20. Needle felts
21. Roofing felts
22. Rope
23. Covering fabrics
24. Tyre wrapping
25. Upholstery foundation
26. Strings of all types
27. ETC

Mixed with cotton fiber, jute fiber is called as jutex technology. The process which makes various types of course fabric cost less, compared with completely cotton made fabrics. Raw green jute can be also used for making paper.

Process of Spinning Jute Fiber

As a kind of natural fibers, jute fiber is hard than other textile fibers. The process of spinning jute fiber is different from other spinning.

Jute fiber is a kind of natural fibers which is eco-friendly. For worldwide demand in different country, jute products are manufactured by a line of sequence. The process of spinning jute fiber is completely different from cotton. The followings are the process of spinning jute fiber.

Selection of jute for a batch:
1.(According to jute grade)Piecing up
2.Softening or Lubricating
3.(Application of emulsion on jute)Batching
4.(Piling of jute for certain time)Breaker Card
5.(Inter Card is used between this two)Finisher Card
6.(It may be half or full circular)First Drawing Frame
7.Second Drawing Frame
8.Third or Finisher Drawing Frame
10.(For fine yarn)Spinning Frame
11.(Apron draft or Slip draft)Winding
12.(Roll winding & Cop winding)Beaming
13.(For warp yarn of cloth)Weaving
14.(Insertion of warp & weft yarn)Damping

Some additional steps can be added for meeting buyers’ requirements, which can change the count of yarn. The process varies on types of products, such as CBC, Hessian and Sacking.

Process of Mercerizing Knitted Fabrics

Mercerizing is an additional process which can improve the physical and chemical properties of knitted fabrics. For dyeing knitted fabrics, mercerizing is before dyeing. Mercerized fabrics are more suitable than unmercerized fabrics. Mercerizing depends on the buyers’ requirements, which is not common for cotton fabrics. It is done for the sophisticated fabric. The machine is vertical type which consists of vertical washing chamber.

Types of mercerizing process: Three stages of the products can adopt mercerizing
>Grey mercerization (Knitted fabrics before dyeing)
>Fabric mercerization (Yarn dyed fabric)
>Collar & Cuff mercerization.

Frequency of mercerization: Mercerizing process can be classified into single mercerization and double mercerization.

Process of mercerizing knitted fabrics:
1)Fabric entered in mercerizing machine
2)Impregnation in reaction chamber
3)Hot wash
5)Hot wash

Hydro Extractor Machine for Dyeing Knitted Fabrics

Hydro extractor machine is the first sequence of dyeing knitted fabrics. After dyeing being completed, knitted fabrics are hold for a while before hydro extraction. Hydro extractor machine is vital for de-watering process.

Functions of hydro extractor machine: Hydro extractor machine uses centrifugal extraction to remove excess water from knitted fabrics. About 65% water is removed by hydro extractor machine which spends 5-10 minutes.

Procedure of hydro extractor machine: Hydro extractor machine looks like a round basket which is made of steel. It has amount of holes on the down side of basket. Put the wet knitted fabrics into the hydro extractor, then water is removed by centrifugal extraction. Extract water is drained out through the holes.

Nowadays, various types of hydro extractor machine are available in the market. People can choose what they need according to their own requirements.

Types of Knitting Machines in Textile Industry

Knitting machines are used to produce knitted fabrics by using hooked needle to interlock one or more yarns through a series of loops. Knitted fabrics differ from other fabrics according to the design. Specific knitted fabrics are produced by specific knitting machine.

Knitting machines are classified into the following types:

Weft Knitting Machine
>Flat Bar Knitting Machine
1. Flat bed
2. V-bed
3. Single bed
4. Unidirectional

>Straight Bar Knitting Machine
1. Single needle
2. Double needle

>Circular Knitting Machine
1. Revolving Cylinder; Sinker Top or Open Top Single Jersey Knitting Machine
2. Revolving Cylinder; Cylinder and Dial Double Jersey Knitting Machine

>Circular Bearded Single
1. Sinker Wheel Knitting Machine
2. Loop Wheel Knitting Machine

>Warp Knitting Machine
1. Rachel Knitting Machine
2. Tricot Knitting Machine

Nowadays, knitted fabrics have a large verity to meet the different demands. Such types of fabrics are produced in the knitting mills.